Of the many types of criminal activity that occur on the web, few are more puzzling and difficult to prevent than distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. These attacks can bring down even the largest websites by overloading servers with more requests than they can handle. Unable to meet the load of junk requests, servers crash and often require hours to restore.
Norton, in fact, calls DDoS attacks “one of the most powerful weapons on the internet”, and with good reason. Denial-of-service attacks can come at any time, impact any part of a website’s operations or resources, and lead to massive amounts of service interruptions and huge financial losses.DDoS attacks were once a thing of mischief, but data shows they’re increasingly becoming a tool to earn income for cybercriminals or cause disruption for political purposes. DDoS attacks are also on the rise, according to a Q1 2019 report from Kaspersky Lab, and they’re getting more complex.
Below, we’ve laid out some major stats and facts that highlight how DDoS attacks are transforming and impacting the web.
2018-2019 DDoS stats and facts
Here’s a round-up of some of the most telling DDoS attack statistics:
1. DDoS attacks are on the rise
DDoS attacks have increased overall in the past 2 years, although the number of attacks between 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019 (to date) show some interesting trends. For example, the number of DDoS attacks in summer 2018 was 16 percent higher than in 2017.
2. Various DDoS attack types on the rise
According to Akamai, infrastructure layer attacks increased 16 percent, reflection-based attacks increased 4 percent, and application-layer attacks increased 38 percent.
3. Other data shows mixed declines and regionally-specific increases
There was 13 percent less DDoS activity in 2018 versus 2017. And in Europe, the average DDoS attack volume increased 192 percent in 2018 compared to 2017. Average attack volumes on the continent increased from 1.7 GB/s to 4.9 GB/s, and the proportion of multi-vector attacks in Europe rose from 34 percent to 59 percent in 2018.
4. 2019 may be another break-out year for DDoS
Despite some decreases in 2018, the amount of DDoS activity in 2019 is currently trending higher than in previous years. DDoS attacks increased 200 percent in Q1 2019 compared to the same time period in 2018. The number of DDoS attacks over 100 GB/s in volume increased 967 percent in Q1 2019.
In fact, in the first six months of 2019, the number of searchable web pages covering “denial of service attacks” surpassed the total number of results in all of 2018.
5. DDoS-for-hire sites shut down in 2018, which may have resulted in a decrease in DDoS activity that year
In late 2018, the FBI took down a dozen DDoS-for-hire marketplaces, and in April 2018, Europol shut down Webstresser, the world’s largest marketplace for buying DDoS attacks. At the time it was shut down, Webstresser had over 130,000 registered users.
This activity may have been part of the decline in DDoS attacks witnessed in 2018. However, current data shows that the number of DDoS-for-hire websites bounced back in 2019, which might also play a role in the large increase in DDoS activity in 2019. See also: How to stop a DDoS attack
6. The longest DDoS attack in history occurred in 2018
The longest DDoS attack since 2015 occurred in Q4 2018 and lasted for 329 hours, or nearly 2 weeks.
However, to more effectively counter DDoS mitigation techniques, cybercriminals have changed many of their tactics in the past 2 years, with a greater emphasis on short-lived, more powerful strikes against their targets.
7. Current data shows most DDoS attacks are comparatively small
The vast majority of DDoS attacks in 2018 were low-volume, sub-saturating attacks of 10/GB/s or less. According to security company Neustar, 58 percent of its mitigated attacks in Q1 2019 were less than 5 GB/s in volume. Other sources note that the number of attacks above 10/GB/s or more than doubled in 2018 versus 2017.
8. Data also shows DDoS attackers shifting to large, but short-lived attacks
Even so, DDoS attacks are becoming less about prolonged attacks and more about attack size and frequency. Over 80 percent of DDoS attacks in 2018 lasted less than 10 minutes, but 20 percent of DDoS victims are attacked again within 24 hours. As well, the size of DDoS attacks increased 73 percent in Q1 2019 versus Q1 2018.
9. Attacks serving over100 GB/s of data increased 967 percent between 2018 and 2019
The largest DDoS attack in Q1 2019 was 587 GB/s in volume, compared to 387 GB/s in volume for the largest Q1 2018 attack. Also noteworthy is the fact that attacks above 100 GB/s increased 967 percent in 2019 versus 2018, and attacks between 50 GB/s and 100 GB/s increased 567 percent.
10. DDoS attackers are now using multi-vector attacks more frequently
The methods used to create DDoS attacks are also changing. A growing number of attackers are using multi-vector DDoS attacks, combining different DDoS attack methods into one, short attack, and then repeating again soon after. Around 77 percent of all attacks in Q1 2019 uses 2 or more vectors, with 44 percent using 3 vectors, while around 11 percent of attacks in 2018 used multi-vector methods, versus 8.9 percent in 2017.
11. UDP attacks are now the most common form of DDoS attack
UDP attacks were the most common individual form of attack in 2018. Mixed-method attacks were the largest type of DDoS attack overall, however, and typically involved HTTPS floods and mixed attacks with HTTP elements. According to Kaspersky Labs’ observations, most UDP attacks lasted for fewer than 5 minutes.
Additionally, a majority of DDoS attacks do not completely saturate uplinks. Corero found that only 0.6 percent of DDoS attacks reached “full pipe” uplink saturation, which is defined as more than 95 percent of usage in the uplink. Of those that reached saturation levels, most (around 95 percent) lasted less than 10 minutes.
13. Credential stuffing attacks are now on cybersecurity radars
Finally, not all DDoS attacks are designed to crash servers. A new type of attack, credential stuffing, is currently targeting many different sites, especially video game services. In this attack, hackers test a load of credentials against their database to verify stolen account information. Although not a DDoS attack strictly by definition, credential stuffing can increase traffic volume on a site and have a similar impact to a DDoS attack. (Source: Neustar)
See also: DoS vs DDoS attacks
14. Despite their distributed nature, DDoS attacks are geographically concentrated
DDoS attacks quite often utilize botnets to send massive amounts of traffic to a single server to overload it with requests. Over 20 million “DDoS weapons”, or infected IP addresses across the world, are currently being used as part of DDoS attacks. The Mirai malware and its many variants are currently the most popular malware used to create botnets for DDoS attacks, although others do exist as well.
15. India and China are botnet hubs
According to Spamhaus, the country with the most botnets is India, with over 2,345,000 bots. China is the second-worst with over 1.4 million bots. Some autonomous system number (ASN) operators—mostly ISPs—also have larger numbers of infected IP addresses due to extensive botnet malware. However, which ASN operators are most impacted is more difficult to determine. Spamhaus identifies the top 5 impacted ASN operators as:
- No.31/Jin-rong Street (China)
- National Internet Backbone (India)
- Bharti Airtel Ltd. AS for GPRS Service (India)
- TE-AS (Egypt)
- VNPT Corp (Vietnam)
Meanwhile, A10 Networks writes that the top 5 ASNs with infected IP addresses are:
- China Unicom
- China Telecom
- TIM Celular S.A. (Brazil)
- Rostelecom (Russia)
- Korea Telecom (South Korea)
DDoS attacks can be launched from anywhere, however, regardless of where the infected computers exist. As one might expect, most DDoS attacks also tend to originate primarily from a select few countries.
16. Hackers in China launch the most DDoS attacks, followed by those in the US and Russia
The majority of DDoS attacks are launched from:
- China (over 4.5 million in 2018)
- USA (2.7 million)
- Russia (1.5 million)
- Italy (940,000)
- South Korea (840,000)
- India (500,000)
- Germany (370,000)
17. DDoS records were broken in 2018
The security news world went into a frenzy in 2018 after the largest DDoS attack record was broken not just once, but twice in less than one week. The second-largest DDoS attack on record occurred in March 2018 against Github, with a registered 1.3 Terabytes per second (TB/s) of data sent toward GitHub’s servers. The site effectively mitigated the attack.
Then, just a few days later, the largest attack on record targeted unnamed US wireless service. The Memcached attack served 1.7 terabytes per second to the service provider’s servers. No damage or outages were reported for that attack, either, as the service provider also had DDoS mitigation methods in place.
18. DDoS attacks are getting more expensive for victims
The costs associated with these attacks are mounting, as well. A Corero survey found DDoS attacks can cost enterprise organizations $50,000 in lost revenue from downtime and mitigation costs. Nearly 70 percent of surveyed organizations experience 20-50 DDoS attacks per month. Although most DDoS attacks don’t succeed, even a few successful attacks can result in hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost revenue per month.
Over 75 percent of businesses surveyed by Corero believe a loss of customer confidence is the worst result from DDoS attacks. That confidence loss can lead customers to flee to competitors, making the overall financial impact completely difficult to determine.
Notable 2018-2019 DDoS attacks and news
The number of websites impacted by DDoS attacks is on the rise. As “DDoS-for-hire” marketplaces proliferate, it’s now easier than ever for just about anyone to pay cybercriminals to disrupt a website’s operations.
- After launching his first major DDoS attack against video game servers back in 2013, 23-year-old Austin Thompson, also known as “DerpTrolling”, was sentenced to 27 months in prison. Thompson was initially arrested in 2014 after he was doxed. He later pleaded guilty to the Christmas-time DDoS attacks in 2018. (Source: US Department of Justice)
- Security company Imperva announced the largest Layer 7 DDoS the company had ever witnessed come against one of its customers in the video streaming industry. The attack, which was launched primarily from Brazil, utilized a botnet comprised of 400,000 IoT device IPs in the attack which lasted for nearly two weeks. (Source: Imperva)
- Telegram was hit by a large DDoS attack which the service’s founder, Pavel Durov, suggests was designed to target Telegram during massive protests in Hong Kong. Telegram did not say how large the attack was, but Durov described it as a “state-actor sized” attack, which he stated served 200-400 Gigabytes per second (Gb/s) or junk data. (Source: TheVerge)
- In January 2019, a Connecticut man was given a 10-year prison sentence for several DDoS attacks carried out against hospitals in 2014. He was also ordered to pay over $440,000 in restitution. (Source: Boston Globe)
- Two men allegedly part of the hacker collective Apophis Squad were charged with instituting multiple DDoS attacks, including a weeklong attack on encrypted email service, ProtonMail. (Source: Court House News)
- A British hacker was jailed for three years in January 2019 after being charged with launching a DDoS attack against Liberian telecom Lonestar in 2015 and 2016. The hacker was hired by an employee from one of Lonestar’s competitors, Cellcom. The attacks were powerful enough to knock out internet access across the entire country and resulted in a loss of millions of dollars for Lonestar. (Source: CNN)
- In October 2018, the then 22-year-old co-author of the Mirai botnet malware was sentenced to six months home confined, 2,500 hours of community service, and ordered to pay $8.6 million in restitution after repeatedly targeting Rutgers University with DDoS attacks. (Source: Krebs on Security)
- In October 2018, Ubisoft’s Uplay service experienced a DDoS attack that disrupted operations for several hours. (Source: Newsweek)
- The Bank of Spain was hit with a DDoS attack in August 2018 that took it offline for several hours. (Source: Bank Info Security)
- In May 2018, the cryptocurrency Verge experienced a DDoS attack that allowed the hacker to acquire $35 million XVG (a cryptocurrency), or $1.75 million based on exchange rates at that time. (Source: Bitcoin Magazine)
- The National Tax Office in the Netherlands was sent offline for 5-10 minutes in January 2018 after a DDoS attack of unspecified size. (Source: Reuters)
Digging through DDoS facts might require brushing up on a few key terms. Distributed denial-of-service attacks are highly technical, and you may encounter some unfamiliar terminology while reviewing the latest stats.
- Denial-of-service attack: An attack on a website that sends an overload of traffic (requests) to a web server. A distributed denial of service attack (DDoS) uses multiple compromised computer systems to increase the number of requests that can be made to a server at one time, making server overloads easier to accomplish and more difficult to prevent.
- Amplification: A term used to describe a DDoS attack where the number of requests made to a target’s server is multiplied beyond the original request. There are several ways attackers can do this, including DNS amplification, UDP amplification, and ICMP amplification (Smurf Attack).
- Botnet: A network of computers, typically infected with and controlled maliciously through a virus or malware program, that is used to make the requests to servers in a DDoS attack.
- Memcached: A distributed memory caching system popularly used in DDoS attacks.
- Mirai: Malware created to target Linux-based IoT devices, including home security cameras and routers. Mirai and its many variants are currently among the most-used malware to create DDoS botnets.
- Gigabytes-per-second and Terabytes-per-second: A measurement of how much data is sent to servers in a DDoS attack, typically denotated as GB/s or TB/s.
- Saturation: A term used for the amount of volume sent to a server during a DDoS attack. Supersaturation occurs when all of a system’s resources are filled with requests from the DDoS attack, completely shutting down the system, while sub-saturation refers to small DDoS attacks that can negatively impact system performance and resources but are not nearly large enough to shut down a server completely. Sub-saturating attacks are increasingly common, often go undetected, and are commonly used as a “smokescreen” for larger attacks.
- 1 2018-2019 DDoS stats and facts
- 2 1. DDoS attacks are on the rise
- 3 2. Various DDoS attack types on the rise
- 4 3. Other data shows mixed declines and regionally-specific increases
- 5 4. 2019 may be another break-out year for DDoS
- 6 5. DDoS-for-hire sites shut down in 2018, which may have resulted in a decrease in DDoS activity that year
- 7 6. The longest DDoS attack in history occurred in 2018
- 8 7. Current data shows most DDoS attacks are comparatively small
- 9 8. Data also shows DDoS attackers shifting to large, but short-lived attacks
- 10 9. Attacks serving over100 GB/s of data increased 967 percent between 2018 and 2019
- 11 10. DDoS attackers are now using multi-vector attacks more frequently
- 12 11. UDP attacks are now the most common form of DDoS attack
- 13 12. Few attacks completely saturate a network’s uplinks
- 14 13. Credential stuffing attacks are now on cybersecurity radars
- 15 14. Despite their distributed nature, DDoS attacks are geographically concentrated
- 16 15. India and China are botnet hubs
- 17 16. Hackers in China launch the most DDoS attacks, followed by those in the US and Russia
- 18 17. DDoS records were broken in 2018
- 19 18. DDoS attacks are getting more expensive for victims
- 20 Notable 2018-2019 DDoS attacks and news
- 21 DDoS terminology