watch UK TV online abroad VPN

In this tutorial, we’ll show you how to watch UK TV shows abroad with a VPN, whether you are in France, Spain, Germany, Canada, Australia, the USA, or anywhere else in the world. You can get your fix of British TV including live TV streams and on-demand content.

If you want to skip ahead and find out which VPN to use to watch UK TV from abroad without reading the whole article, below is a summary of our top picks.

Best VPN for UK TV abroad:

  1. NordVPN Our top choice for watching UK TV abroad. Huge network of superfast servers, including many in the UK. Easily unblocks geo-restricted content. First-class security and privacy. Includes a 30-day money-back guarantee.
  2. Surfshark Best budget alternative. Unblocks UK TV platforms with ease, keeps no logs, and doesn’t set a device limit.
  3. ExpressVPN Fast servers in the UK make streaming effortless. Unblocks many major UK streaming sites. Solid privacy and security.
  4. CyberGhost Unblocks popular UK shows. Great privacy and security and easy-to-use apps.
  5. PrivateVPN Good up-and-coming VPN that works well with BBC iPlayer and other streaming services.
  6. IPVanish Fast speeds and good privacy features. Doesn’t reliably work with Netflix or iPlayer.

There’s no doubt that many UK TV channels have some fantastic British content that you just can’t get anywhere else. Whether you’ve moved out of the country permanently or are just traveling, chances are you’ll want to get your fix. Unfortunately, a lot of the content you might be used to seeing in the UK is geo-locked. This means that if the provider detects a non-British IP address, it won’t allow access to the content.

For example, trying to access BBC iPlayer from a non-UK server might deliver the following message:

“BBC iPlayer only works in the UK. Sorry, it’s due to rights issues.”

A BBC iPlayer error message.

Thankfully, there is a way around this that enables you to freely watch content from sites like BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub (formerly ITV Player), All4 (previously 4OD), Netflix UK, and more. The solution is a Virtual Private Network (VPN), which encrypts all of your traffic and tunnels it through an intermediary server in a location of your choice. A VPN service masks your real IP address and replaces it with one from your chosen country. So by connecting to a UK server, you’ll be able to watch British TV channels as if you’re in the UK, from anywhere in the world like Spain.

What’s more, with a VPN, you get additional perks like improved privacy and security and access to other geo-restricted sites. Not all providers offer the same service, so it’s essential to choose the right one.

VPNs are an incredibly popular means for millions of people to keep up with their favorite TV shows. However, you should only access content where you have a legal right to do so.


NordVPN is offering a fully-featured risk-free 30-day trial if you sign up at this page. You can use the VPN rated #1 for UK TV without any restrictions for a month. As such you'll be able to stream British TV during vacations abroad.

There are no hidden terms or rulesjust contact support within 30 days if you decide NordVPN isn't right for you and you'll get a full refund. Start your NordVPN trial here.

Best VPNs to watch UK TV abroad

Many streaming sites block IP addresses that are known to belong to VPN providers. Just because a network includes servers in the UK doesn’t mean you’re guaranteed access to popular UK content. As such, you’ll need to know that your chosen provider does, in fact, circumvent all restrictions. Aside from streaming capabilities, when looking for the best VPN to watch British channels online, you’ll want to consider things like security, speed, reliability, and level of customer support.

We’ve tested many VPNs and have put together a list of the best ones for accessing UK TV abroad. Our choices are based on the following criteria:

  • Has a selection of UK servers
  • Enables access to UK content, such as that from Netflix UK and BBC iPlayer
  • Provides a fast, reliable VPN connection with unlimited bandwidth
  • Uses strong encryption backed by additional security features
  • Keeps no traffic logs of user activity or IP addresses

We’ve covered access to specific UK streaming sites — BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, Channel 4, Sky Go and BT Sport — in separate articles. If you’re looking for the best VPNs to use while in the UK, we have an article for that too. In this piece, we’ll cover which VPNs are best overall for accessing UK content abroad. If you would like to know more about our analysis process for VPNs take a look at our testing methodology page.

1. NordVPN

NordVPN May 2022

Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux
  • Background FireTV


Money-back guarantee: 30 DAYS

NordVPN is our top pick for watching UK TV abroad. It operates a large network of over 5,500 servers, more than 650 of which are located in the UK. This means it’s well-equipped to help you access content from sites like Netflix UK, BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, Sky Go, All 4, and more. Its blazing fast speeds make it particularly suitable for accessing content through geographically distant servers.

NordVPN operates with a strict no-logs policy to help maintain the privacy of its users. For security, you have 256-bit AES encryption, perfect forward secrecy, DNS leak protection, and a kill switch. A bonus with this provider is automatic wifi protection, which means you never have to worry about connecting to an unsecured network while on your travels.

A NordVPN plan allows up to five simultaneous connections which is great for families or if you tend to switch devices regularly.

Apps are available for Windows, MacOS, iOS, and Android.

NordVPN speed test data

No valueNordVPN
Average Connection Speed - North America (USA)460 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Europe (UK)349 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Asia (Hong Kong)299 Mbps


  • Fastest VPN we’ve tested
  • Veteran provider with over 650 servers throughout the UK
  • Unblocks most popular UK streaming content
  • Military-grade 256-bit encryption for great privacy
  • Customer service available via 24/7 live chat
  • No-logs policy


  • Can select city location of servers, but not specific servers

Our score:

4.5 out of 5

BEST VPN FOR UK TV ABROAD:NordVPN is our top pick. A good budget all-rounder that works well for viewing UK TV while abroad with a good selection of UK servers. Strong security features and handles up to 6 devices simultaneously from one account. Includes a 30-day money-back guarantee for a risk-free deal.

See our full review of NordVPN.

NordVPN Coupon
SAVE 60% + FREE Malware Protection
Get Deal >
Discount applied automatically

2. Surfshark


Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux


Money-back guarantee: 30 DAYS

Surfshark is a great budget-friendly provider that currently operates over 3,000 servers in 60+ countries including the UK. Its speeds are fast enough for flawless live streaming, and it can unblock BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, and All 4 effortlessly, meaning you’ll never struggle to find something to watch. One of Surfshark’s standout features is that it has no connection limit: simply, it lets you protect every device you own simultaneously.

This VPN includes a surprising number of security features, given its low monthly price. For example, there’s a kill switch in every version of the app, 256-bit encryption, and protection against DNS, IPv6, and WebRTC leaks, as well as an automatic ad-blocker and malware-scanner. Perhaps most important, Surfshark keeps no logs, meaning your activities cannot be traced back to you.

Surfshark provides apps for MacOS, Linux, Windows, iOS, and Android.

Surfshark speed test data

No valueSurfshark
Average Connection Speed - North America (USA)317 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Europe (UK)253 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Asia (Hong Kong)400 Mbps


  • Great at unblocking British streaming services
  • Strong security and privacy features
  • Decent speeds, plenty of UK servers
  • No internet connection limit
  • Live chat 24/7 support


  • Some slow speeds

Our score:

4.5 out of 5

Read our full review of Surfshark here.

BEST BUDGET VPN:Surfshark works out of the box with many UK streaming services, but support is available if needed. It boasts strong security and privacy features and you can connect as many devices as you like. Includes 30-day money-back guarantee.

Surfshark Coupon
Get 2 Months FREE with a 2-year plan
Get Deal >
Discount applied automatically

3. ExpressVPN


Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux


Money-back guarantee: 30 DAYS

ExpressVPN is known for its ability to unblock geo-locked content, including popular streaming sites. It has a network of over 3,000 servers in more than 94 countries, including a selection of UK locations. It works with Netflix libraries from various countries, including the UK. You’ll also be able to access content from other popular sites like ITV Hub, Sky Go, and BT Sport, although you may be out of luck with BBC iPlayer. Great speeds and a reliable VPN connection mean you shouldn’t have to deal with buffering while watching your favorite shows.

Another selling point of ExpressVPN is its excellent customer support. Should you run into problems accessing content, you can contact a representative through live chat to get a quick resolution.

Security is another strong feature of this provider. It uses 256-bit AES encryption and perfect forward secrecy. A kill switch means you don’t have to worry if the VPN connection is lost and there’s DNS leak protection to boot. ExpressVPN’s clear logging policy tells us that user activity is never monitored and no IP addresses are logged.

Apps are available for Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android, Linux, and some wifi routers.

ExpressVPN speed test data

No valueExpressVPN
Average Connection Speed - North America (USA)136 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Europe (UK)134 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Asia (Hong Kong)136 Mbps


  • Operates servers in 7 UK cities that can unblock geo-restricted content from almost anywhere
  • Unblocks all major UK streaming sites
  • Superfast server network is great for streaming and downloading
  • High-grade security features and no logs policy protects your privacy
  • Connect up to 3 devices at the same time


  • Not as cheap as some other services

Our score:

4.5 out of 5

EASY STREAMING:ExpressVPN is a fast and reliable VPN. Works with most major UK TV streaming services including Netflix and Amazon Prime Video. Great security and privacy features and keeps no traffic logs. Plans include a 30-day money-back guarantee.

See our full review of ExpressVPN.

ExpressVPN Coupon
SAVE: 49% on the annual plan
Get Deal >
Coupon applied automatically

4. CyberGhost


Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux


Money-back guarantee: 45 DAYS

CyberGhost is based in Romania and continues to expand its network of more than 5,700 servers. CyberGhost puts a lot of effort into ensuring users can access geo-locked content, and with more than 150 servers in the UK, fans of British TV won’t miss out. You can access sites like ITV Hub, All 4, Channel 5 (My5) and Eurosport player by selecting each channel through the VPN client. Once you’ve made your selection, CyberGhost will automatically connect you to the right server.

You won’t see Netflix UK as an option, but you can access the US library (which is more extensive anyway) through a US server. CyberGhost does have the odd issue with BBC iPlayer so if you don’t see it listed, it’s temporarily unavailable. This provider pegs some great speeds, even when connected to geographically distant servers, so you shouldn’t run into issues while streaming.

CyberGhost is another secure provider, with strong 256-bit encryption and perfect forward secrecy. Its logging policy clearly states that it doesn’t maintain traffic logs and never keeps connection logs that can be traced to an individual user. Further privacy is provided by a kill switch and DNS leak protection. CyberGhost plans allow for up to five simultaneous connections.

Apps are available for Windows, MacOS, iOS, and Android.

CyberGhost speed test data

No valueCyberGhost
Average Connection Speed - North America (USA)853 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Europe (UK)480 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Asia (Hong Kong)312 Mbps


  • Large contingent of over 400 servers in the UK can unblock most geo-restricted streaming content
  • User-friendly apps; select site to unblock the app automatically connects to the best server
  • Strong encryption and solid privacy policy
  • Very good streaming speeds


  • Doesn’t work in China or the UAE

Our score:

4.5 out of 5

Easy-to-use apps:CyberGhost has a simple set up. A user-friendly service that unblocks a wide range of geo-blocked UK streaming TV and sports content. Big choice of UK servers that are fast and reliable. Good marks with security and privacy. Won’t unblock as many streaming sites as nearest rivals. 45-day money-back guarantee.

See our full review of CyberGhost.

CyberGhost Coupon
SAVE 82% on the 3 year plan
Get Deal >
Discount applied automatically

5. PrivateVPN


Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux


Money-back guarantee: 30 DAYS

PrivateVPN places a large focus on ensuring users can access geo-locked content. It has a smaller network of servers than others on this list, but it boasts some competitive speeds and can deliver otherwise restricted content. PrivateVPN has four servers within the UK, some of which are labeled specifically with the popular streaming platforms they work with. Between these servers, you should be able to gain access to content from Netflix UK, BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, Sky Go, and BT Sport.

This provider doesn’t disappoint on the privacy and security front. A strict zero-logs policy is backed by strong security, including 128- bit or 256-bit encryption and perfect forward secrecy. A kill switch and DNS leak protection help to further keep your information safe. PrivateVPN allows up to five simultaneous connections with a basic plan.

Apps are available for Windows, MacOS, iOS, and Android.

PrivateVPN speed test data

No valuePrivateVPN
Average Connection Speed - North America (USA)94 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Europe (UK)57 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Asia (Hong Kong)62 Mbps


  • Gaining a solid reputation for unblocking geo-restricted content, including from the UK
  • Minimal fuss accesing Netflix UK, BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, Sky Go, and BT Sport
  • Strong security and privacy protection features
  • Keeps no logs whatsoever
  • Faster than many other providers


  • Needs manual tweaking to get it working in China
  • May need support staff assistance for locating the best server for each site you want to unblock

Our score:

4.5 out of 5

GREAT SPEED:PrivateVPN is a good family choice. Reliably unblocks a good selection of UK streaming content. Allows up to 6 devices on the same account – has a small network of servers but fast connections. 30-day money-back guarantee.

See our full review of PrivateVPN.

PrivateVPN Coupon
SAVE 85% on the three year plan
Get Deal >
Discount applied automatically

6. IPVanish


Apps Available:

  • PC
  • Mac
  • IOS
  • Android
  • Linux


Money-back guarantee: 30 DAYS

With more than 1,000 servers in over 60 countries, this US-based provider is popular among torrenters and Kodi users. IPVanish doesn’t usually compete as well on the streaming front as it doesn’t put a large focus on watching Netflix. However, it’s UK content you’re after, and in that case, IPVanish can deliver. With five UK servers, it provides access to content including that from BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, Sky Go, and All 4.

There are no traffic or connection logs kept, so you don’t need to worry about your information being disclosed. Security is in the form of 256-bit AES encryption along with perfect forward secrecy. Apps come with a built-in kill switch and DNS leak protection. You can connect up to five devices at a time with a basic plan.

Apps are available for Windows, MacOS, iOS, and Android.

IPVanish speed test data

No valueIPVanish
Average Connection Speed - North America (USA)685 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Europe (UK)314 Mbps
Average Connection Speed - Asia (Hong Kong)466 Mbps


  • Unblocks all major UK streaming sites from abroad
  • Particularly favored by remote control users with Kodi devices or Fire TV Sticks
  • Keeps no traffic logs or connection logs


  • Apps don’t work in China
  • No live customer support
  • Doesn’t accept bitcoin

Our score:

4 out of 5

UP TO 10 DEVICES:IPVanish has a large network of servers. Unblocks several UK streaming services. Great for families that need multiple simultaneous connections. Works well with Kodi but look elsewhere if you will be using it from China. 7-day money-back guarantee.

See our full review of IPVanish.

IPVanish Coupon
SAVE 63% on the annual plan + bonus VIPRE Advanced Security AV
Get Deal >
Discount applied automatically

VPN for UK TV testing methodology

With so many VPNs circulating on the market, choosing one to watch British TV abroad can be tricky. Not all VPNs have servers in the UK that work to stream iPlayer, ITV Hub, Channel 4, BT Sport, Sky TV, Now TV, etc. In fact, British streaming platforms have managed to block most VPNs nowadays. This means you must pick a service carefully.

At Comparitech, we use a precise VPN testing methodology to test the market. This allows us to locate services that are suitable for different use cases, including accessing British TV abroad. Below, we have included a list of features we looked for and tested when curating this list of the best VPNs for British TV:

  • Fast servers: To stream UK TV abroad, you will require a VPN with fast servers in Britain. In this guide, we have recommended VPNs that work to stream iPlayer and other popular services outside the UK. We were also sure to pick VPNs with a large global server network that can access Netflix US, Hulu, HBO Max and other popular services.
  • Apps for all platforms: Our recommendations have apps for Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android, and various other platforms. This lets you install and use the VPN on a variety of devices to stream UK TV. Some of our recommendations even throw in a free Smart DNS service to allow you to stream on devices that will not let you install a VPN directly.
  • Strong security and privacy features: A reliable VPN must be able to provide solid security and privacy (in addition to increased online freedom). Our recommendations have robust AES encryption, a kill-switch, DNS leak protection, obfuscation, and a no logs policy. This ensures that they are good for protecting your digital footprint and preventing eavesdropping, whether at home or on public wi-fi.
  • Exceptional customer care: You never know when you may want to ask a question or get help with using your VPN. This is why we test VPNs’ customer support teams and recommend services with both email and live chat support that is available at all times of the day.
  • Great value for money: We compare VPNs’ feature to cost ratio in search of VPNs that are priced fairly. In this guide, you will find services at various price points that all offer a high level of service.

How to watch UK TV abroad with a VPN

If you’re trying to watch UK TV from Canada, Australia, the US or anywhere else in the world you first need to set up a VPN. Never used a VPN before? Not to worry just follow these steps below to unblock your favorite UK TV streams.

Here’s how to watch UK TV online from anywhere:

  1. Choose a VPN provider which can unblock UK TV from abroad, we particularly recommend NordVPN.
  2. Download and install the VPN app onto your device from the provider’s website or your official app store.
  3. Run the app and select a VPN server in the UK.
  4. Hit the Connect button to initiate the connection.
  5. Once the connection has been established, open the video you want to stream. It should now be unblocked as if you were in the UK.

Note that some sites might require you to clear your browser cookies and/or web cache to eliminate any prior location identifiers stored on your device. If the video is still blocked, do so and refresh the page.

Can I use a free VPN to watch UK TV abroad?

When researching various VPN providers, you’ll likely encounter some attractive free offerings. While some of these might be able to get you access to some UK content, free services usually come with some downsides.

One of the major problems from a streaming standpoint is that a free VPN service is typically slower and less reliable than a paid one. You’re more likely to endure slow or dropped connections and buffering while trying to watch shows. What’s more, you’ll have access to fewer servers and might have to wait in a queue to connect to the ones you want.

Aside from lacking from a practical perspective, free VPN providers often fall short from a privacy and security standpoint too. They usually have to make money somehow and common business models involve collecting and selling user data and displaying ads through the service. Some providers have even been known to carry malware.

How to connect and watch TV through streaming sites

Once you’re set up with a VPN, watching UK TV is fairly straightforward. You’ll first initiate your VPN connection using a UK server. For example, below we’re connecting to a UK server using NordVPN.

NordVPN Uk connection.

You can then access your desired content as usual. For Netflix, you’ll need a paid subscription no matter where you are. The difference is while you’re connected to a UK server, you’ll see the Netflix UK library instead of the one for the country you’re in.

Other sites offer content for free but still require you to sign into an account. For sites like BBC iPlayer and ITV Hub, you can just set up an account if you don’t have one already. You may be asked to enter a postal code, so make sure it’s a UK one.

Signup page for ITVHub.

If you’ve tried to access a site before without first connecting to a UK server, you might still have issues. If so, you can try clearing the cache and cookies or switching to a different browser.

Note that once you’ve got your VPN subscription, you can use it to access all types of content, not just UK TV. For example, you can connect to a US server to obtain access to US Netflix, HBO, Hulu, and more from your Smart TV or other device.

How to watch UK TV through streaming apps

If you want to watch UK TV channels via a mobile app for Android or iPhone, a VPN can help with that, too. You just need to set up the VPN on whichever mobile device you’re using so that you can mask your IP on that device. All of the plans we’ve talked about above allow for multiple devices to be connected simultaneously, so you’ll have no problem switching at your leisure.

While your IP address will be masked by the VPN, depending on your device settings, its GPS could still give away your real location. If you’re having issues, try disabling the GPS in your settings menu.

What about the UK TV license?

Anyone who watches live TV in the UK needs to be covered by a TV license or could face fines of up to £1000. A UK TV license is required if you’re watching or recording live TV. If you’re accessing on-demand or catch-up TV, a license is not usually required.

An illustration depicting when a TV license is needed.

The exception here is if you’re watching any content on BBC iPlayer, in which case it is stipulated that you should have a license. Before you play a show, a popup will ask you if you have a TV license. Things get a bit tricky when you’re watching from abroad. For example, unless you live in the UK, you won’t have a license. However, it appears that the TV license check is pretty much based on the honor system and not well enforced.

The TV licensing website does address travel to some extent. In an answer to an FAQ, it essentially says that if you have a TV license for your address, you’re okay to watch BBC iPlayer on your device while traveling. The exception is if your device is plugged into the electrical mains at another address. This seems like it might be a bit difficult to enforce, but these are rules.

When it comes to travel outside the UK, the same section simply states that the iPlayer won’t be accessible from abroad, but you can view shows that you’ve downloaded prior to travel (for a limited period of time). So, it’s not really clear if the licensing laws would apply to persons overseas.

While it’s not addressed directly, it seems like you should be okay to watch BBC iPlayer overseas if you have a TV license at your home address and your device is not plugged in. Although to err on the side of caution, you may want to stick to previously downloaded content or shows from other sites. After all, you wouldn’t want to get stuck with a nasty fine.


Watch UK TV Abroad FAQ

Can I unblock UKTV Play with a VPN?

Yes. UKTV Play is geo-restricted and only allows access to users within the UK. But with a VPN, you can connect to a UK server to spoof your current location. You will be assigned a UK IP address, making it appear that you’re actually located in the UK. You can then access UKTV Play as normal.

How can I watch Britbox while abroad?

Britbox, a joint project between the BBC and ITV, brings viewers a ton of classic British TV series as well as a few newer ones. This service is currently available in the UK, Canada, and the US. If you’re outside these countries, you can use a VPN to spoof your location and log in as you would at home.

What are the best British TV quiz shows?

Love a bit of trivia? UK television doesn’t disappoint on this front with shows ranging from intellectual to downright silly. Here are the most popular British TV quiz shows you may want to check out:

  • Pointless
  • Mastermind
  • 8 Out of 10 Cats
  • QI
  • CatchPhrase
  • Big Fat Quiz of the Year
  • University Challenge
  • Countdown

How can I watch Now TV outside of the UK?

Now TV is geo-restricted and only available if you have a UK IP address. However, it is possible to watch it from outside the UK, simply by connecting to a UK VPN server. Note that to sign up for a Now TV account, you need to have an address in the UK or Channel Islands.

How can I watch the English Premier League online live?

English Premier League (EPL) matches are aired by broadcasters across the globe, many of which provide online live streams. In the UK, the major broadcasters are Sky Sports, BT Sport, and Amazon Prime Video, all of which enable you to stream content online. If you happen to be traveling outside the UK and want to access your regular services, you can use a VPN to spoof your location.

Do you normally reside outside the UK? If so, you won’t be able to sign up with the above services (except Amazon Prime Video) so you will need to look for an alternative broadcaster. In the US, NBC has rights to air EPL matches while Canadians will need to subscribe to DZAN. Optus Sport broadcasts EPL games in Australia.

Why is UK TV blocked abroad?

It’s not just UK TV that’s blocked abroad! It’s the same story when it comes to other countries' streaming platforms. One of the most common reasons for geo-blocked content is copyright and licensing. This is certainly the case for UK TV, be it BBC iPlayer, ITV Hub, or Sky Go. This is why so many people choose to use a VPN when traveling abroad -- so they can continue watching their favorite TV shows from anywhere without restriction.

Can I watch UK TV abroad on a smart TV?

Yes, it’s possible to watch UK TV abroad on a smart TV or indeed any other streaming device. Indeed, the process across devices is much the same. To stream UK TV abroad from a smart TV, you’ll need to download and install a VPN app for Amazon Fire Stick/Fire TV or Android TV. Alternatively, there’s the option of manually installing a VPN with your wifi router.

Is BBC iPlayer free to use?

Yes. Anybody in the UK is allowed to stream on BBC iPlayer for free as long as they have a valid TV license. As a result, there is nothing stopping anybody from signing up for iPlayer to stream content for free. Just bear in mind that you will need to provide an email address, and a valid UK postcode to sign up. You will also have to accept terms in which you state you have a valid TV license (no proof of this is required).

Does the Freeview app work overseas?

Freeview is a UK-based service that is only available to British residents who login and use the app or website with a valid UK IP address. The good news is that anybody who leaves the UK on vacation or traveling for work can regain access to their account by connecting to a VPN. Using a VPN will allow the Freeview app to work overseas. 

It is also worth noting that the Freeview app will allow you to download content to watch at a later date. Thus, if you are only leaving the country for a short time, and want something to watch until you return, you could use this feature.